Pictures of Dentistry and Dental Procedures

The thousands of pictures on have been created for educational purposes
by Dr. Jeffrey Dorfman, Director of The Center for Special Dentistry.

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tooth crown & bleeding gums, teeth caps & periodontal health

Click on the small photos below to enlarge.
Image Photo Description
hypertrophy, cut gum incision, gingivectomy, gum surgery, crown preparation cap, broken tooth Gingivectomy performed during a crown preparation. The distal lingual cusp of this tooth had fractured and the patient ignored it. The biologic width was not invaded because the excised gum was hypertrophied.
inflamed gingival margin, gum inflammation dental tooth crown gums, toothbrush bleeding dental floss The top photos show inflammation of the the gingival margins - gums - between two upper right dental crowns. The top arrow points to a purple, inflamed gingival papilla that was sensitive. The patient also noticed gum bleeding after using dental floss or a toothbrush. The bottom pictures show two upper left dental crowns in the same patient that are not inflamed. The bottom arrow points to pink, non-inflamed gum tissue.
post and core dental crown margins cast gold how to subgingival margin teeth  caps gums gingiva Two cast gold post and cores. The distal margin of the tooth on the left went subgingival, but not so deep that crown lengthening gum surgery was necessary. I chose to end the distal dental crown margin on the gold casting instead of on 2 mm of tooth structure because 75% or more of the crown margin did end on 2 mm of sound tooth structure beyond the casting. On the tooth on the right I chose to end the crown margin in the more typical manner, which is on two millimeters of sound tooth structure. Sometimes rules can be broken if logic dictates and in this case I considered it worthwhile to help the patient avoid gum surgery.
crowns caps gums gingiva gingival build-up, electrosurgery gum surgery  gingivectomy how to Crown build-up of a badly broken down upper right first molar tooth after root canal. Photo 1) Cavit, temporary filling material, in the tooth following root canal therapy. Photo 2) Gutta percha exposed in the pulp chamber after removal of the Cavit. Tooth decay is still present. Photo 3) Cavity removal and preparation into the canal orifices to aid in mechanical retention of the bonded core. Photo 4) Final preparation after electrosurgery - gum surgery - in the distal section of the tooth.
Periodontal gum surgery gingival teeth crown lengthening decay maxillary canine  crowns caps Dental crowns and gums. Periodontal gum surgery for crown lengthening on a canine that has tooth decay below the gumline. The mesio-buccal gingival papilla gum point was left intact for esthetic considerations. Note: last line reads "...the initial incisions and tissue debridement."
crowns teeth caps gingival recession, gum pain, hot cold sensitive sensitivity  desensitization Photo showing gingival gum recession around an old dental crown. This can make the tooth very sensitive to touch, air and/or hot & cold liquids. Treatment depends upon the severity of the subjective symptoms and can range from: 1) do nothing and reevaluate, 2) using desensitizing agents, 3) periodontal gum surgery to add gum to that area or 4) remaking the crown with or without root canal therapy.
cavity dental caries preparation technique crown cap periodontal surgery  crown lengthening osseous Photo showing dental caries - tooth decay - on a molar and extending below the gum. This has to been removed before referring the patient for crown lengthening periodontal gum surgery so the periodontist knows how much osseous reduction is necessary.
tooth cavity decay dental caries drilling  preparation failed crown cap failure gum surgery Pictures showing an upper anterior porcelain crown failure. 1) Tooth decay. 2) The failed porcelain crown with the prefabricated post still in it. 3) and 4) Tooth preparation - drilling - to determine the need for gum surgery.
crowns caps gums gingiva dental caries periodontics big tooth decay molar cavity  metal furcation Photo series showing treatment of severe molar tooth decay: - root canal, endodontics. - gum surgery to grab more tooth structure. - two gold posts. - porcelain teeth crown with a metal furcation.
teeth caps crowns gums gingiva  periodontics fracture of a large filling, vertical fractures Placing caps on teeth with large dental fillings will help prevent vertical tooth fractures and other possible fractures below the gum.
replacing dental crowns teeth caps dark  black gums stain gum dark periodontics  gingivitis perio Porcelain teeth caps replacing old, poorly fitting dental crowns in the entire mouth. Bleeding gums are one symptom of poorly fitting crowns.
dark black gum blackness darkness, cap,  gum, periodontics, gingiva surgery,  porcelain periodontist Before and after pictures. Minor gum surgery and a new porcelain cap eliminated the dark black gum area noted in the top image.
temporary dental crowns provisional caps  gums gingiva periodontics surgery provisional teeth caps Before and after pictures showing teeth after crown lengthening gum surgery, suture removal and crown prep [*Notice lots of tooth for crown margin -- crown margins can NEVER end on a core!]. After the temporary dental crown is placed, wait at least 6 weeks before taking an impression for final teeth caps.


 Information about these dental photos

     In medicine and dentistry "left" and "right" are based upon the orientation of the patient's body and not how they appear in a photograph of a smile.  For example, a reference to the upper left teeth will actually appear to be on the right side when viewing a picture of the face and similarly an upper right tooth will appear to be on the left side.

     Many words in dentistry like oral and mouth have a similar meaning and are frequently used together to help our readers find specific words they best understand.  This is particularly important because a majority of our visitors are from countries where English is not their primary language.  Maxilla or maxillary refer to the upper jaw.  Mandible or mandibular refer to the lower jaw.

     There are many other similar word combinations used throughout this website because our pages are read by patients and dentists.  A few of the most common are discussed here.  Tooth decay, tooth cavity and dental caries all mean the same thing.  Tooth, teeth and dental are also frequently interchanged as in teeth veneers or dental veneer laminate.  Oral rehabilitation and dental reconstruction mean smile makeover.  The word for x-ray may be used with or without a hyphen (this is true for other words too) and can also be called a radiograph.