Pictures of Dentistry and Dental Procedures

The thousands of pictures on have been created for educational purposes
by Dr. Jeffrey Dorfman, Director of The Center for Special Dentistry.

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Diabetes and Periodontal Disease, Gum Disease, Gingivitis

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Image Photo Description
diabetes and periodontal disease, diabetes and gum disease, oral microbiology bacteria anaerobic gum Oral Microbiology will become increasingly important in medicine and dentistry. The correlation between Periodontal Disease and medical illnesses like Diabetes and Heart Disease are being explored. Our office has been performing Oral Microbiology testing since 1987 and refers patients with advanced gum disease for a medical evaluation. Oral microbiology tests performed on likely candidates will usually show anaerobic and aerobic bacteria like: actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ("AA"), spirochetes, and porphyromonas gingivalis ("PG"). These bacteria are highly correlated with periodontal gum disease. Periodontal treatment should focus on their elimination as a goal because Periodontal Disease is highly correlated with other systemic diseases like Diabetes and Heart Disease.
diabetes and gum disease, periodontics oral microbiology aerobic bacteria anaerobic  periostat spiro Diabetes discovered in a dental patient with Periodontal Disease (gum disease). Oral Microbiology culture results for a middle-aged woman with severe periodontal disease who did not favorably respond to three years of oral antibiotics at another dental office. Anaerobic bacteria, enteric gram negative rods, populated 13.8% of the culture and were shown to be resistant to the antibiotics she had been taking for three years! This patient was successfully treated with a combination of both Amoxycillin & Metronidazole antibiotics. She was also referred to a nutritionally-focused physician where a Fasting Glucose Tolerance Test showed her to have early stage Diabetes that could be controlled by diet alone. She ended up controlling her diet, lost 40 pounds and regained periodontal health. Oral Microbiology tests will typically show anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in "at-risk" patients with high proportions of spirochetes, porphyromonas gingivali and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. These periodontal disease germs are highly correlated with gum disease and Diabetes; treatment should focus on the elimination of these bacteria.
diabetes and periodontal disease, gum disease, gingivitis, AA PG bacteria oral microbiology,  porphy An Oral Microbiology culture test for the presence of periodontal bacteria associated with Gum Disease and correlated with Diabetes. Technique pictures: Use a cotton pellet and a college pliers to wipe away plaque above the gum line. Place a medium Endodontic cotton point into several different gingival sulci (gum sites) with the deepest pockets. Leave the cotton point in place for five seconds and then quickly place it in the culture medium. Ship overnight to a reputable Microbiologic Testing Lab. Suggested reading: Listgarten, Offenbacher, Rams and Genco.


 Information about these dental photos

     In medicine and dentistry "left" and "right" are based upon the orientation of the patient's body and not how they appear in a photograph of a smile.  For example, a reference to the upper left teeth will actually appear to be on the right side when viewing a picture of the face and similarly an upper right tooth will appear to be on the left side.

     Many words in dentistry like oral and mouth have a similar meaning and are frequently used together to help our readers find specific words they best understand.  This is particularly important because a majority of our visitors are from countries where English is not their primary language.  Maxilla or maxillary refer to the upper jaw.  Mandible or mandibular refer to the lower jaw.

     There are many other similar word combinations used throughout this website because our pages are read by patients and dentists.  A few of the most common are discussed here.  Tooth decay, tooth cavity and dental caries all mean the same thing.  Tooth, teeth and dental are also frequently interchanged as in teeth veneers or dental veneer laminate.  Oral rehabilitation and dental reconstruction mean smile makeover.  The word for x-ray may be used with or without a hyphen (this is true for other words too) and can also be called a radiograph.